For younger men, the most common prostate problem is prostatitis.
The prostate is a exocrine gland of the male reproductive system. It is normally about the size of a walnut and is located immediately below the bladder.
The main function of the prostate is to store and
secrete a clear, slightly alkaline (pH 7.29) fluid
that constitutes 10-30% of the volume of the seminal
fluid that, along with spermatozoa, constitutes
semen. The rest of the seminal fluid is produced by
the two seminal vesicles. The alkalinity of seminal
fluid helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal
tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm.
To work properly, the prostate needs male hormones (androgens), which are responsible for male sex characteristics.
The main male hormone is testosterone, which is produced mainly by the testicles. Some male hormones are produced in small amounts by the adrenal glands. However, it is dihydrotestosterone that regulates the prostate.
A healthy human prostate is slightly larger than a walnut. It surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam.
The ducts are lined with transitional epithelium.
Within the prostate, the urethra coming from the bladder is called the prostatic urethra and merges with the two ejaculatory ducts. (The male urethra has two functions: to carry urine from the bladder during urination and to carry semen during ejaculation.) The prostate is sheathed in the muscles of the pelvic floor, which contract during the ejaculatory process.
The prostate can be divided in two different ways: by zone, or by lobe. 
The "zone" classification is more often used in pathology.
The prostate gland has four distinct glandular regions, two of which arise from different segments of the prostatic urethra:
Peripheral zone (PZ)
Composes up to 70% of the normal prostate gland in young menThe sub-capsular portion of the posterior aspect of the prostate gland which surrounds the distal urethra. It is from this portion of the gland that more than 70% of prostatic cancers originate.
Central zone (CZ)Constitutes approximately 25% of the normal prostate gland
This zone surrounds the ejaculatory ducts. Central zone tumours account for more than 25% of all prostate cancers.Transition zone (TZ)
Responsible for 5% of the prostate volumeThis zone is very rarely associated with carcinoma. The transition zone surrounds the proximal urethra and is the region of the prostate gland which grows throughout life and is responsible for the disease of benign prostatic enlargement.
Anterior fibro-muscular zone (or stroma)Accounts for approximately 5% of the prostatic weight
This zone is usually devoid of glandular components, and composed only, as its name suggests, of muscle and fibrous tissue.
The "lobe" classification is more often used in gross anatomy.
Anterior lobe (or isthmus)
Median lobe (or middle lobe)
inflammation of the prostate gland. There are
different forms of prostatitis, each with different
causes and outcomes. Acute prostatitis and chronic
bacterial prostatitis are treated with
antibiotics; chronic non-bacterial prostatitis
or male chronic pelvic pain syndrome, which
comprises about 95% of prostatitis diagnoses, is
treated by a large variety of modalities including
alpha blockers, phytotherapy, physical therapy,
psychotherapy, antihistamines, anxiolytics, nerve
modulators and more.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in older men; the prostate often enlarges to the point where urination becomes difficult. Symptoms include needing to go to the toilet often or taking a while to get started. If the prostate grows too large it may constrict the urethra and impede the flow of urine, making urination difficult and painful and in extreme cases completely impossible.
BPH can be treated with medication or with surgery that removes the prostate. The surgery most often used in such cases is called transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP or TUR). In TURP, an instrument is inserted through the urethra to remove prostate tissue that is pressing against the upper part of the urethra and restricting the flow of urine. Older men often have corpora amylacea (amyloid), dense accumulations of calcified proteinaceous material, in the ducts of their prostates. The corpora amylacea may obstruct the lumens of the prostatic ducts, and may underlie some cases of BPH.
Urinary frequency due to bladder spasm, common in older men, may be confused with prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate.)
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers
affecting older men in developed countries and a
significant cause of death for elderly men
(estimated by some specialists at 3%).
During orgasm sperm are transmitted from the ductus deferens into the male urethra via the ejaculatory ducts, which lie within the prostate gland.
Anderson RU, Wise D, Sawyer T, Chan CA
(2006). "Sexual dysfunction in men with
chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain
syndrome: improvement after trigger point
KM, Dieleman JP, Bleumink GS, et al
(2002). "Incidence and prevalence of lower
urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign
prostatic hyperplasia in primary
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